The United States wind industry is progressing from a period of experimentation and development to a period of wide scale demonstration and actualization, which is leading to advancements in infrastructure. As the wind industry continues to grow, logistical constraints must be identified and resolved in order to prevent bottlenecking in the supply chain and installation process. U.S. manufacturers are working together to overcome many of the challenges facing the industry as a whole.
Infrastructure and Logistical Challenges
The infrastructure that supports the growing wind industry encompasses each and every part of the manufacturing and turbine installation process. This includes the selection of a turbine site; selecting the appropriate turbine design; acquiring all of the materials needed for production and fabrication; manufacturing each component; transporting sizeable components to installation sites; installing turbine components; connecting the turbine to the appropriate electrical grid; and maintaining each component throughout the lifetime of the turbine. Streamlining this process will bring more affordable wind energy to consumers across the country.
- One of the primary challenges facing the wind industry is the sheer size and dimensions of wind turbine components. Since components typically require special logistical handling throughout transportation, manufacturing is best completed locally.
- Manufacturing and transporting turbine blades that can reach hundreds of feet in length is no easy process. Once fully constructed, a blade cannot be bent or folded, limiting both the route a truck can take and the radius of turns that it can make, often making elongated routes necessary to avoid urban roadblocks.
- While the towers that support wind turbines extend high into the sky, the width of a turbine tower is also a significant factor to consider. The transportation of tower components is often obstructed when the diameter of components is unable to fit under highway overpasses or bridges.
The logistics of delivering and installing increasingly large wind turbine components is just one issue that requires attention if the U.S. is to meet 20 percent of its electricity needs with wind power by 2030. Image from NREL/PIX 16178
Wind Turbine Tower Heights
In the northeastern, southeastern, and western United States, wind conditions near the ground are often low or turbulent, limiting the amount of electricity generated from wind energy. Today's utility-scale wind turbines average 90 meter hub heights, but taller wind turbines could take advantage of the stronger, more consistent winds available at greater heights, increasing the number of locations that can cost-effectively produce renewable wind energy.
As described in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)'s Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting the Deployment of Larger Wind Turbines, enabling cost-effective deployment of wind turbines with hub heights up to 140 meters will unlock an additional 1,800 gigawatts in wind power resource potential across 237,000 square-miles of the United States, or an area roughly the size of Texas. Unlocking this potential will require new manufacturing or installation techniques to address the transportation and logistics challenges associated with large towers.
Expanded area of potential wind energy deployment resulting from increasing hub height from 96 to 140 meters. Image from NREL