The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low-Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aimed to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants relative to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in Rooftop Unit (RTU) air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.
This report characterizes the current landscape and trends in the global air conditioning (A/C) market, including discussion of both direct and indirect climate impacts, and potential global warming impacts from growing global A/C usage.
The Department of Energy commissioned a technology characterization and assessment of appliances used in commercial buildings for cooking, cleaning, water heating, and other end-uses. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development, and demonstration opportunities to improve energy efficiency in each end-use.
This report provides the Building Technologies Office (BTO) and the research and development (R&D) community with a technical and market analysis of pumps and fans as they pertain to commercial and residential buildings as well as key conclusions regarding the R&D opportunities that can help achieve BTO’s energy savings goals.
This report outlines the technical opportunities for building assets to seamlessly integrate and transact with grid operations. It defines the characteristics inherent in transaction-based controls that are necessary to control those building assets and operations using a “transactive” energy approach.
While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. The Building Technologies Office is evaluating low-global warming potential (GWP) alternatives to vapor-compression technologies.
This market assessment and commercialization report characterizes and assesses the market potential of the rotating heat exchanger technology developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), known as the Radial Sandia Cooler. The RSC is a novel, motor-driven, rotating, finned heat exchanger technology. The RSC was evaluated for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation markets.
This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies.
Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) can help achieve the Building Technologies Office goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).
This report assesses 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development.
This Building Technologies Office report assesses heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development.
This report characterizes the current state of commercial miscellaneous electric loads (MELs), including analysis of their unit energy consumption and annual electricity consumption (for 2008) based on building type, as well as an initial assessment of the energy-saving potential for MELs based on current best-available technology and practices.
This report documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment.