In 2002, the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy completed a technology roadmap project that provided an overall plan to the broad vision of enhancing the future role of nuclear energy systems in the United States and the world at large. This Technology Roadmap focused on the development of advanced nuclear systems, so-called Generation IV systems, which meet profram foals of improved safety and economics, as well as enhanced sustainability and minimization of the risks from proliferation.
The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) marks a major change in the direction of the DOE’s nuclear energy R&D program. It is a coherent plan to test technologies that promise to markedly reduce the problem of nuclear waste treatment and to reduce the proliferation risk in a world with a greatly expanded nuclear power program. It brings the U.S. program into much closer alignment with that of the other major nuclear energy states.
To amend Article 12.1 of the Agreement to read as follows:
"This Agreement shall enter into force upon the latter date of signature, shall remain in force for five (5) years, and subject to Article 12.3 shall be automatically renewed for additional five-year periods."
This Amendment shall enter into force upon signature by both Parties, with effect from September 18, 2005.
The objective of this implementing arrangement is to set forth detailed terms and conditions and to establish a framework for the Cooperation between the Parties for research and development of innovative nuclear energy technologies. The Parties shall conduct the Cooperation on the basis of the mutual benefit, equaliity and reciprocity.
The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) of the Department of Energy has been formulated to perform research leading to advanced fuels and fuel cycles for advanced nuclear power systems. One of the objectives of AFCI is to determine if partitioning and transmutation of spent nuclear fuel will reduce the burden on the geologic repository. The AFCI program is periodically reviewed by the Advanced Nuclear Transmutation Technology (ANTT) subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC).
Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) was selected as one of the promising candidates in Generation IV reactors for its prominent advantages; those are the high thermal efficiency, the system simplification, the R&D cost minimization and the flexibility for core design. As the demand for advanced nuclear system increases, Japanese R&D project started in 1999 aiming to provide technical information essential to demonstration of SCPR technologies through three sub-themes of 1. Plant conceptual design, 2. Thermal-hydraulics, and 3. Material.
As an element of its plans to return the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site in eastern Idaho to its historic mission of nuclear technology development, the DOE asked its Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC) to establish a Subcommittee on Nuclear Laboratory Requirements. The Subcommittee was charged with identifying the “characteristics, capabilities, and attributes a world-class nuclear laboratory would possess”.
Noting further that representatives of DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology and ANRE have identified common interests in innovative light water reactor technologies, including supercritical light water, innovative processing technologies of oxide fuel for light water reactor, and innovative fuel technologies using solvent extraction.
On October 1, 2002 the DOE Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee was asked to provide specific, focused updates to its Nuclear Science and Technology Infrastructure Roadmap and review the specific issues at the DOE key nuclear energy research and development (R&D) laboratories. This activity was assigned to a five-member Infrastructure Task Force (ITF).
The ANTT Subcommittee of NERAC met February 26th and 27th (S. Pillon absent) to begin a review of the potential role of transmutation technologies in increasing the capacity of the geological repository for spent reactor fuel. This work is in support of the recommendation required from the Secretary of Energy later in this decade on the need for a second repository. Since repository issues were under discussion, representatives of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) were in attendance.
The committee met in Washington in Sept 16-17 to review progress in the program with respect to a changed set of mission priorities. Our last meeting took place in Dec 2002 after the reorganization that had place the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and GEN IV program together in the Advanced Nuclear Reserach Office (AN-20). Since mission priorities have been evolving, the committee felt that it should wait unti they have settled down before we met again.
The objective of this technical arrangement is to establish a framework for co-operation between the Parties in the field of nuclear-related technology research and development based upon mutual benefit. The co-operation is intended to occur in specific areas where the programs of the Parties complement one another as well as those in which comparability exists.
The ANTT Subcommittee met in Washington on Dec 4-5, 2002 to review progress in the transmutation program, and to learn about major organizational changes that affect the management of the program. The NE's new Advanced Nuclear Research Office (NE-20) now oversees both the transmutation program (ANTT) and the Generation-IV program (GEN-IV).
The development of advanced nuclear energy systems in the U.S. will depend greatly on the continued success of currently operating light water nuclear power plants and the ordering of new installations in the short term. DOE needs to give those immediate objectives the highest priority and any additional support they require to assure their success.
DOE is pursuing two initiatives to encourage a greater use of nuclear energy systems. The initiatives have been reviewed by NERAC Subcommittee on Generation IV Technology Planning (GRNS) and they are:
Although they are tiny, atoms have a large amount of energy holding their nuclei together. Certain isotopes of some elements can be split and will release part of their energy as heat. This splitting is called fission. The heat released in fission can be used to help generate electricity in powerplants. Uranium-235 (U-235) is one of the isotopes that fissions easily. During fission, U-235 atoms absorb loose neutrons. This causes U-235 to become unstable and split into two light atoms called fission products.
The objective of this document is to provide the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nuclear industry with the basis for a plan to ensure the availability of near-term nuclear energy options that can be in operation in the U.S. by 2010. This document identifies the technological, regulatory, and institutional gaps and issues that need to be addressed for new nuclear plants to be deployed in the U.S. in this timeframe. It also identifies specific designs that could be deployed by 2010, along with the actions and resource requirements that are needed to ensure their availability.
The purpose of this Implementing Arrangement is to establish between the Department of Energy of the United States of America and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique of France, hereinafter referred to as the parties, terms for bilateral collaboration on Research and Development focused on advanced technologies for improving the costs, safety, and proliferation-resistance of nuclear power systems.