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Concentrating Solar Power Dish/Engine System Basics

August 20, 2013 - 5:02pm

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The dish/engine system is a concentrating solar power (CSP) technology that produces relatively small amounts of electricity compared to other CSP technologies—typically in the range of 3 to 25 kilowatts. Dish/engine systems use a parabolic dish of mirrors to direct and concentrate sunlight onto a central engine that produces electricity. The two major parts of the system are the solar concentrator and the power conversion unit.

Solar Concentrator

Illustration of a dish/engine power plant. Sunlight is shown reflecting off the large dish-shaped concentrator and onto the mounted power conversion unit to generate electricity that is fed into the power grid. The system looks similar to a large satellite television receiver dish.

A dish/engine power plant.

The solar concentrator, or dish, gathers the solar energy coming directly from the sun. The resulting beam of concentrated sunlight is reflected onto a thermal receiver that collects the solar heat. The dish is mounted on a structure that tracks the sun continuously throughout the day to reflect the highest percentage of sunlight possible onto the thermal receiver.

Power Conversion Unit

The power conversion unit includes the thermal receiver and the engine/generator. The thermal receiver is the interface between the dish and the engine/generator. It absorbs the concentrated beams of solar energy, converts them to heat, and transfers the heat to the engine/generator. A thermal receiver can be a bank of tubes with a cooling fluid—usually hydrogen or helium—that typically is the heat-transfer medium and also the working fluid for an engine. Alternate thermal receivers are heat pipes, where the boiling and condensing of an intermediate fluid transfers the heat to the engine.

The engine/generator system is the subsystem that takes the heat from the thermal receiver and uses it to produce electricity. The most common type of heat engine used in dish/engine systems is the Stirling engine. A Stirling engine uses the heated fluid to move pistons and create mechanical power. The mechanical work, in the form of the rotation of the engine's crankshaft, drives a generator and produces electrical power.

More Information

Learn about the latest dish/engine research and development from the EERE Solar Energy Technologies Office.

To learn about other types of concentrating solar power systems, see:

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