There is widespread consensus that the U.S. distribution and transmission systems for vital electricity service need to be modernized and upgraded. This modernization has been
recently promoted under the rubric of the Smart Grid. The Smart Grid vision has three primary parts: (1) new communication and digital sensors and automation capabilities for the distribution and transmission systems; (2)
new digital metering systems for all customers; and (3) direct interfaces between the new metering systems and customers through inhome technologies.