In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing
ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the
Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in
undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market
designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS)
products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and
elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that
customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.