This report describes the Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE) technology—
developed at Sandia National Laboratories—to investigate Supervisory Control And Data
Acquisition (SCADA) vulnerabilities associated with energy systems; and it describes a set
of experiments with findings from using that environment. The report explains how VCSE
can be used to analyze and develop an understanding of cyber attacks. Specific analyses in
this report focus on unencrypted, unsecured data channels on Internet protocol (IP)-routed
computer networks within electric power systems.