In-Situ Decommissioning (ISD) is an effective decommissioning practice offering a safe and environmentally-favorable alternative to completely demolishing a facility and transporting its debris elsewhere for disposal. Regulatory approval to decommission a facility through ISD is authorized primarily by the Environmental Protection Agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). In addition, Federal Facility Agreements and local stakeholder agreements have a direct influence on ISD approval and oversight.
The ISD approach limits radiation exposure and industrial hazards to workers to a greater extent than larger scale cleanout and demolition. While ISD can be a cost-effective alternative, the range of avoided cost varies considerably because of a wide variation in the facilities that may be decommissioned via ISD.