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DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Going Green and Building Strong: Building a FORTIFIED Home -- Part 1 Webinar (Text Version)

Below is the text version of the webinar, Going Green and Building Strong: Building a FORTIFIED Home -- Part 1, presented in June 2014.

Lindsay Parker:
Welcome to the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home technical training webinar series. We're really excited that you can join us today for this session on Building FORTIFIED Homes Part 1, presented by Fred Malik with the Insurance Institute for Business and Home Safety, or IBHS. Today's session is one in a continuing series of technical training webinars to support our partners in designing and building DOE Zero Energy Ready Homes. My name's Lindsay Parker. I'm the coordinating support for the program, and I'll be covering some general notes on webinar housekeeping. All attendees will be in listen-only mode, however, we invite you to ask questions throughout this session in the questions part of the GoToWebinar program. We'll monitor these questions throughout the webinar and near the end of the webinar, we'll try and cover as many of your questions as possible, Also, this session is being recorded, and will be placed on the resources pages of the Zero Energy Ready Home website. So we appreciate your patience during this process. It does take a few days to go through the transcribing and captioning process, however, they will be added online. Also, after the webinar, we'll be sending out an email with a PDF of the presentation and some information on upcoming webinars. Now I'm going to hand it over to Jamie Lyons with Newport Partners. He's the technical director of the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home program.

Jamie Lyons:
Great. Thanks, Lindsay. Thanks, everybody, for joining us. I'm just going to give a little context before we hand it over to our speaker.

First slide:
So the reason we're running these sessions is that DOE and support staff like myself have a great opportunity to go around the country, and we meet with groups of builders and energy raters, designers, product manufacturers, and so on, and we do about a half-day training on the whole notion of zero energy ready homes. And we give the background on why DOE has the program, why the industry is trending toward zero energy ready, what it looks like from a business case standpoint, how do we communicate the value, which is ultimately so important. Then we spend some time on the technical specs, what goes into a Zero Energy Ready Home with the DOE label on it. But in that format, we don't have a lot of time to go too far into specific building systems and strategies for those systems. So that's the idea behind these webinars. We're running a whole series of them through 2014, roughly two a month, and as Lindsay mentioned, they're being recorded and posted on the website. So in each of these webinars, we'll spend 60 minutes, maybe 90 minutes, having a deeper dive on a particular topic like today's topic, which is building more-disaster-resistant homes. The reason we're covering this idea of disaster-resistant homes is -- first off, I should mention it's an encouraged piece of the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home program at this point. It's not a required mandatory piece. But if you take a step back, and look at these homes that are zero energy ready, they're outstanding for energy efficiency. They're outstanding for durability, moisture management, indoor air quality, all those other performance aspects. So it makes sense also to make them better than minimum code in terms of disaster resistance. Many of our builder partners agree that it does make sense, so this is an encouraged component of DOE's Zero Energy Ready program.

A little more about the background to why DOE references the IBHS fortified program as sort of an off-the-shelf package for good disaster-resistance measures. Because it's systems-based. And if you've been at any of our trainings, you'll hear DOE staff continually say that we can't do things a la carte; we need good efficiency in the system. We need building science as a system. We need indoor air quality as a system. So that also holds true with disaster resistance. To do things right, do them well repeatedly, it makes sense to use a system for good disaster resistance, and that's what the FORTIFIED program brings to us. So we'll hear more about that from our speaker today, who is Fred Malik. And just to introduce Fred, he's the director of the FORTIFIED program at the -- at IBHS, Institute for Business and Home Safety. So in this role he oversees the day-to-day operations of the FORTIFIED suite of programs, which are intended to improve property resilience in natural disasters on the local, regional, and national level. Fred's been in that role since 2009, and he's led FORTIFIED's expansion to include existing residential, new residential, and light commercial building. Under his leadership, FORTIFIED has quickly become the national building standard for resilience. Fred has more than 20 years of construction experience as well as an MBA from Virginia Tech. I won't hold that against you, Fred, being from another school in Virginia. And Fred is a ASPE-recognized mitigation expert who is a featured speaker on resilience and its value and practicality at various conferences around the country. Fred lives with his family in Florida. So without further ado, Fred, I'll turn it over to you.

Fred Malik:
Thank-you, Jamie, I appreciate it. And I appreciate being offered the opportunity to talk about FORTIFIED during your technical series and I hope that the folks that are attending today will get some valuable insight into our program and how it can help them meet the "Live Better" portion of the Zero Energy Ready Home program. Or "Last better."

Next slide:
I'm going to launch a couple of polls here right at the very beginning just so I can get a feel for who I'm talking to. I'd like to know what the audience makeup is so that as I go through the program and the different discussion points, I can tailor it if necessary, if we're heavily concentrated one way or another. So Lindsay's going to go ahead and fire up a couple polls. Find out roughly what the business is that you're in, whether you work on new or existing homes, and get an idea of the volume of homes that you participate in. So Lindsay, let's go ahead and get that started.

Lindsay Parker:
OK, Fred.

Next slide:
The first poll question is to please state your affiliation. Select one. Builder, remodeler, developer, are you a rater / inspector? A design professional, a vendor / manufacturer, or a lender or realtor? I'm going to give everyone a few seconds to respond to the poll. ... OK, great, thank-you. I'm now going to close the poll qand share it with everyone.

Next slide:
Looks like 41 percent of attendees are design professionals.

Fred Malik:
OK, great.

Lindsay Parker:
Next slide:

The next poll question is to please identify the types of projects that you work on most frequently. Is it new homes; it is remodeling existing homes? ... Give everyone a few more seconds to respond. Thank-you, everyone. Closing the poll.

Next slide:
Looks like 52 percent of attendees are working on new homes; 48 percent are working on remodeling existing homes.

Fred Malik:
OK.

Lindsay Parker:
Next slide:

And lastly, the question is, how many projects do you work on in a given year? 1-50, 51-100, 101-250, or 250+? ... Alright, I'm closing the poll. Thank-you for your participation.

Next slide:
It looks like we have 64 percent of attendees work on 1-50 projects in a given year. And 20 percent is the next one, with 250+.

Fred Malik:
OK, great. Alright, well, thank-you very much for responding and participating in those polls. It helps me understand who we're talking to and will allow me to present the material effectively. I do want to say that while the majority of what we're going to present today is slanted toward new construction, FORTIFIED Home, which is the program that we'll be talking the most about today, is applicable and available for existing homes. Everything that we talk about today can be done to an existing home, and an existing home can qualify for a designation if you choose to participate.

Next slide:
So just getting back to the presentation, what we're talking about today is the "Last Better" portion of the Zero Energy Home program and the durability, the disaster resistance, affordability component -- that's what I do every day. That's what our focus is at the Insurance Institute for Business and Home Safety.

Next slide:
So here's our agenda for our session today. And I do want to remind people that this is a two-part session. So we're going to do an hour today, and we're going to cover some basics about who IBHS is, some of the core definitions of what we're talking about, why FORTIFIED is important, and then we're going to get into -- spend the last little bit of our time together talking about some of the design requirements that affect how buildings and wind interact.

Next slide:
The second part of our series, which will be in a couple of weeks, will be at doing a deeper dive into the actual technical requirements. The how-tos, to achieve each level of designation, and the types of retrofit techniques or system upgrades that we require in FORTIFIED Homes. We'll also talk a little bit more about different ways participant builders and contractors and other stakeholders can get recognized under the program.

Next slide:
So I would hazard a guess that most folks don't really know who we are. We've been around a fairly long time, but we're an industry trade group. We're 100 percent funded by property insurance and reinsurance companies. They pay dues and that pays our salaries. But we're a building science organization. So the insurance industry experiences losses. They want to figure out ways to make people safer in their homes and less likely to suffer property loss. So they bring us their problems, and we apply building science to those problems and figure out solutions. Part of my role is to take what we learn and put it into a meaningful platform that folks can do something with as quickly as possible. But it's also to look at the types of upgrades that we're developing and make sure that they're doable. As a builder for 20 years, and a developer, a commercial builder, I have the insight to be able to say, hey, guys, this looks great on paper, but nobody'll ever build it that way. So I'm able to give kind of a sniff test at the things that we develop in our research.

Next slide:
One way to think about us is that we're the home building equivalent to what the insurances do for highway safety. They crash-test cars, we crash-test houses. And we crash-test houses at this facility in South Carolina. It's a world-class, one-of-a-kind research facility located in rural South Carolina, actually. It's a gigantic test chamber that you can see there sort of in the background that is at the end of a substantial wind array. We can fit nine single-family, full-size full-scale, single-family homes in that test chamber, and we can generate 130-mile-an-hour winds. We can produce eight inches of rain per hour. We can create indoor wildfires, and we can create realistic hail storms in this facility.

Next slide (video):
And I'm going to give you just a quick tour of the facility from the exterior. As the video moves around, you can get a good sense of the scale of the test chamber. And the fan array that you see coming into your picture now, that's 105 six-foot-diameter fans, 300 horsepower piece that allows us to generate that type of wind. So that's a little bit about where we're doing most of our science. We also do post-disaster assessments and that type of thing, but this gives us an opportunity to test our techniques, to test conventional building methodologies and look for where they're weak and where the improvements can be made, without having to go out after a disaster and step over people's broken lives.

Next slide (video):
And here's just a -- kind of an appetite- wetter, I guess, for what we can do in our facility. And I'll be sharing some other insights and demonstrations about what we can do in this facility a little later in my presentation. But these are two full-sized, single-family homes right next to each other. They're identical floor plans. The one on the left is a code-compliant home; the one on the right is a FORTIFIED Home. And there's a vast, a dramatic difference in how they perform. What you're going to see here is an opening that gets penetrated, which is the front door, and the house pressurizes, and the roof lifts off. The wind speeds here were wind gusts that reached just 96 miles an hour when the roof failed. But this just gives you a sense for kind of the dramatic work we can do there, and also the compelling images that we can produce to help customers and buyers understand the value of building a FORTIFIED Home. Why they should think about that when they're making a home-buying decision. So that's like I said, that's just a preview of more stuff to come.

Next slide:
So let's get into the definitions. Key definitions for today are going to be "resilience," what does "built to code" mean, and then what is "fortified"? So defining resilience. Resilience is kind of the big concept, sort of like green, or sustainability. What does resilience really mean? Well, resilience is strengthening of residential and commercial structures to minimize the loss of personal property and to increase the likelihood of reuse. And I can't stress that enough, the resuse portion of resilience in FORTIFIED Home in particular. We don't necessarily want people to weather storms in place. If the weather's severe enough, we want them to evacuate. But we want them to have something to come home to, and as this picture shows, and as others later in my presentation will show, this one homeowner had a resilient home, but the entire neighborhood around him is gone. So we really want to focus on building resilient communities. Otherwise, we end up with folks like this that are on an island by themselves after a storm.

Next slide:
So let's talk a little bit about what does "built to code" mean. Well, built to code technically is really a home built in accordance with local ordinances, if any are in place, and it really represents the minimum legal standard. And what's a challenge with that definition, well, really, it doesn't have a whole of meaning. Consumers assume that a builder's required to build to code and that must be good enough. So they really think that when people make a claim that their home is built to the minimum standard, that's a commodity. It's no different than anybody else. Anybody else is the same. What they don't understand is the code is different. Often it can be very different from town to town in the same state, let alone from region to region. Also, as the code develops and improves over time, customers aren't aware, buyers aren't aware, that how houses were built 15, 20 years ago may be substantially different and substantially less resilient than houses that are being built today. So in addition, it's a really hard for consumers to differentiate based on how a home is built, from one home from another, and whether it's a new home, or from less-expensive homes. Homes like foreclosures or short sales that may be out there that look good from a price perspective, but people really don't have a way to evaluate the durability component. So that presents a need for consumers to be able to evaluate different products and different -- the way different homes are built.

Next slide:
So that's where FORTIFIED comes in. FORTIFIED is a cost-effective, consistent, definable, verifiable set of -- verified set of severe storm protection system upgrades that protect property and deliver meaningful value. What does that really mean? Well, what that really means is that we have a standard for hurricane-prone regions, for example. It's the same standard applied uniformly from Texas to Maine. So people can understand what it means. They know what a FORTIFIED hurricane designation means, and they can look at the reference material and understand it very easily. It wouldn't be appropriate to apply the hurricane standard to inland communities. So we have a FORTIFIED high wind, and a FORTIFIED high wind and hail, set of guidance that addresses the more -- the challenges more specifically for inland communities. And we'll get into that a little bit more in a bit, as well.

Next slide:
Another key element that we're going to talk about, and Jamie kind of teed this up already, is that FORTIFIED uses a systems-based approach to achieve resilience versus an a la carte approach. Those of you in the green world, or the sustainable world, know that many of the programs that are out there are a la carte-based. There's a set of improvements that can be made, and depending on the combination of improvements they put together, they arrive at a score, and then that score is what is incentivized, rewarded, or used to differentiate from one house to another. But it really puts the emphasis in the wrong place. It puts the emphasis primarily on the score and not on the performance. The performance takes second chair. I'll just use an example of that. In Florida here, we have a wind mitigation program where different things can be done to different houses in no particular order. Homeowners can pick and choose the things that they want. And they have to be given insurance credit as a result, regardless of whether their risk has actually been reduced. And we work with a lady here in central Florida who spent $20,000 or more on opening protection. So installing shutters to protect her openings. And she's not in a wind-borne debris area, and her roof was stapled on. Her roof decking was stapled to the roof framing. And she could have achieved a far greater return on her investment in terms of reduction of risk, had she addressed the roofing issues and not addressed her opening protection. And she could've saved a lot more money. So we focus on prioritizing the systems that need to be upgraded, upgrading those systems entirely to get to the performance. Another reason we do that is because resilience, if you don't -- if you're not adequately resilient to the severe weather that your home can face, the risk of loss can be significant even in low-intensity events. And many of the images that we're going to see today are the ones that really get people's attention. They're structural failures. They're dramatic. But far more money is paid out annually on low-intensity events, damage caused by low-intensity events, where part of the roof is damaged and water is inundating the property. And personal property is lost as a result. So being resilient is not just being resilient to that real severe weather event, whether it's a hurricane or a severe straight-line thunderstorm. It's dealing with the day-to-day events, where we see products, and materials, and buildings failing regularly. And then finally here, a systems-based approach that we use in FORTIFIED really seeks to mitigate all of the components of the vulnerable assemblies. And we prioritize which assemblies need to be addressed first.

Next slide:
So in order to really set the stage for a compelling reason why resilience should matter and why the consumer's opinions of resilience and its value to them is changing, is a look at how we deal as a country with natural disasters.

Next slide:
Traditional paradigm for disaster mitigation is response. An event like this happens; this is post-Sandy. There's large-spread damage and loss. People are given the opportunity to mitigate that damage, but it's after the event and after they've already suffered a tremendous amount of disruption. All too frequently, during that response we see the exact same construction techniques and methods being used to rebuild what was just destroyed. So we often miss the opportunity to improve a local building stock after an event because the same old stuff is really just put back in its place.

Next slide:
Now one other place where we as a country have evolved considerably over the last 15 or 20 years is in predictions and modeling and alerts. Particularly along the coast. While that has led to a substantial reduction in the risk to personal safety, particularly again along the coast, where we may get a few days' notice, it really hasn't done much to lower the dollar value of losses that are experienced every year. With a few days' notice, you can do a little bit of mitigation that might or might not be effective, and then you've gotta get out of the path of the storm. Inland, where we see severe thunderstorms and these severe tornados that are happening, you don't get days' notice. You still only get if you're lucky 10 or 15 minutes' notice to scramble to a shelter, whether that's in your house or below ground. So we still need to do something about the quality of durability of our houses, despite the fact that we're getting better at predicting and modeling where these types of events will occur.

Next slide:
So what I share with the magnitude of high-wind events and their financial consequences, here's a slide that shows the insured losses from 1991 to 2010. It's $349 billion of insured losses, and keep in mind, there are billions more that are uninsured. If you experience an event and have a claim, and then the first money that gets paid out is your deductible, that's not considered to be an insured loss. On the coast, deductibles can be significant, five percent of the value of the property. But looking at this chart, if you look at the hurricanes, tornadoes, and then some of the smaller wedges, if you go around to wind, hail and flood, you add those numbers up, more than 70 percent or $260 billion of those insured losses that have been paid out are directly attributable to high-wind events. It's why we study it as much as we do, why we built that lab in South Carolina.

Next slide:
In addition to just the magnitude of the losses that are caused by a severe wind, there's some ongoing debate about whether the weather is getting more severe and what climate change has to do with that. And while you may disagree on how climate change is happening or why it's happening, who is responsible for it, you can't ignore the fact that the climate is changing, whether it's a natural process or the result of human activity. And here's a couple of images that can kind of bring that into perspective. So what we're looking at is a map of the United States. The first map we're seeing is the 10-year period between 1990 and 1999. And the shading of the states, the darker the shading, the more significant and the higher dollar value of losses in those states. So all 50 states had claims during those 10 years. But the pale-colored ones are relatively modest, nothing really to the significance of the major losses. We had seven states -- Florida, Texas, California, Minnesota, South Carolina, and New York -- that had substantial losses in that 10-year period. Just seven states.

Next slide:
Now we advance 10 more years, and look at the period between 2000 and 2009. Got a whole lot more color on this map now. We've got New York, we've got states in the Midwest. Florida, and Louisiana are very dark-colored there, and Texas. Now we're looking at 14 states over that 10-year period that had significant disasters, costly disasters that happened.

Next slide:
And if we come to the last four-year period, to be 2010 to 2013, now we're starting to see major disasters, tornados, thunderstorms, hail storms, and hurricanes, that are impacting a far greater geographic area of the country than has been experienced over the last 20 years. And keep in mind, if you look down at the Gulf Coast, this is without a major land-falling hurricane hitting along the Gulf Coast. It's just a matter of time before that happens. And this map will change again. So I hope that gives you some perspective on that natural disasters and losses from natural disasters are accumulating in areas away from the coast. And they're not just limited to hurricanes and earthquakes. Now we're starting to see a lot more damage from other high-wind events, and also hail.

Next slide:
So the new paradigm, what we would propose that homeowners are beginning to pay attention to, and what we would encourage you to do as a builder or a designer that seeks to go beyond the minimum, is to really have a plan. Be resilient community builders, be resilient builders, be resilient commercial businesses in your local community. And the appropriate time to be resilient is while the sun is shining. You've got time, you've got the ability to make informed decisions, you don't have something bearing down on you that you've got to deal with and then make a choice about whether you're going to get out of the storm's way or you're going to stay in place. So have a plan. Know what you're going to do. And FORTIFIED gives people that plan. If they're in an existing home, part of our process is to do an inspection and give people a report that says, here are your vulnerabilities and here are your priorities. Where your priorities should be. And on a new home, here's how to build it right in the first place.

Next slide:
So these are some more images from some of our wind demonstrations at the lab and the structural failures that can happen when just one part of the chain breaks.

Next slide:
In addition to being able to recreate these realistic scenarios in our facility, which by the way we can do, we can take known measured wind records and we can recreate them precisely in our lab. The exact interval and wind speeds, the gusts, the duration, the whole nine yards. We can recreate that in our facility. But in addition to doing that in the lab, we actually have houses out there in the real world that have taken significant punishment that we can draw some conclusions from them. This is an example. This is a community on the Bolivar Peninsula in Galveston Bay in Texas. This particular peninsula took a direct hit from Hurricane Ike, which was a Category 3 storm when it came ashore. And the houses that you see in this picture are built FORTIFIED.

Next slide:
That's the same peninsula right after Ike. An entire community has been washed away. You'll see there 10 houses in that photo that are FORTIFIED Homes, and there are some gaps in between where we lost a couple FORTIFIED Homes because of all the debris and material that was generated by the homes that were directly on the waterfront being washed away and driven into the houses behind. But also, the other thing you should notice here is that it doesn't mean hurricane-proof. We're not talking about hurricane-proof. There's still some damage. But these houses are able to be reused in a relatively quick order. At least the house itself is. The infrastructure, the sewer, the water, those types of systems are still vulnerable and need to be repaired. But the houses can be immediately worked on to be inhabitable once again.

Next slide:
A key is that storm surge like in Sandy was significant, and those houses were built three feet above the required storm elevation, the surge elevation. That was a big factor in their survival of the storm surge, and the rest of the FORTIFIED techniques helped those homes withstand the high winds and the water intrusion that came along with it. So why -- are resilience and sustainability, are they compatible or are they competitors? And we would say that they are compatible philosophies, compatible approaches.

Next slide:
Again, just referring back to some of the stuff that you've seen already as a part of the Zero Home or Zero Energy Ready Homes series -- the benefits of living better, working better, lasting better. Better is better. Durability and disaster resistance are complementary to energy efficiency and sustainability in a couple of different ways.

Next slide:
First of all, when somebody makes an investment in a zero energy ready home, they're expecting short-term return on investment, through either by energy efficiency improvements or comfort. And it takes some time to pay back the investment that's been made. And that's really where resilience comes in. Resilience takes care of protecting those investments, or providing those short-term returns. Making sure that the home is durable and lasts to be able to reap the benefits of those investments in zero energy homes or other green building techniques.

Next slide:
Because at the end of the day, there's really nothing green or community friendly about houses that end up in a landfill.

Next slide:
So let's talk a little bit about what FORTIFIED Home is. I've set the stage now. We've talked about, people really don't understand and see the value in telling them that their home is built to code. They need a different way to measure and differentiate between products and how they're built. We talked a little bit about the need for resilience and why we need to change the way we build in this country. And by the way, the model codes are progressing, but that process to develop those codes is extremely lengthy and bureaucratic. And then once they're adopted and codified in the model building codes, they're rarely adopted and enforced the way they're written in local communities. So even though we may have a good master document, how it's actually applied out there in the world can be severely lacking. And that's where FORTIFIED Home kind of bridges the gap. We can learn stuff more rapidly, we can deploy it more rapidly, and we can bring meaningful changes to places without necessarily making them cost-prohibitive.

Next slide:
So here's what FORTIFIED Home is. FORTIFIED Home is a hazard-specific approach. As I mentioned before, we deal with hurricane or high wind, and or high wind and hail. And we have different levels that you can achieve, bronze, silver, and gold, which relate directly to the systems that are most vulnerable and improving those systems.

Next slide:
Here's a brief breakdown, and as I mentioned, in part 2 of this series we'll get into the nitty-gritty about these areas that need to be improved. But here's a breakdown of the types of systems that we're improving based on the hazard. On hurricane side, we're mitigating the roof. Making sure that the roof is strong. Mitigating the attic ventilation system, and what we're really trying to do there is keep wind-driven rain from being able to penetrate the house through the attic ventilation system. Once you've taken care of the roof --and by the way, there have been some studies done that suggest that if we get the roof right in this country, if every home had a fortified roof, we could eliminate about 50 percent of the insured losses that we talked about earlier. Let that sink in for a second. So we could potentially eliminate $125 billion of insured losses just by focusing our attention on getting the roof right. Once we've gotten the roof right, we can progress up to the silver level. The silver includes everything that was done in bronze. And now we're focusing on openings, gables, and porches. Keeping the building envelope secure, keeping the wind out, keeping the water out. And then after we've secured those elements, we're moving up to gold, which is focusing on the structure. Continuous load path, and chimneys. We've gone away from chimneys that are actually integral and structural, and many of the chimneys out there are really just surrounds covering a prefabricated flue. And those surrounds that are there are just tacked to the roof. And they become vulnerable. They get ripped off, and water just pours into the house. By contrast, on the high wind and hail side, there is no need to go to the same level of durability in inland communities as there is in coastal communities. So the focus changes a bit, as do the requirements. So we're still fortifying the roof at the bronze level. But we have far lower wind speeds and pressures to deal with in these areas. At silver we pay attention to the gables, the porches, carports, and chimneys. We're not so concerned about openings as much in inland areas. And then at the gold level, we're fortifying garage doors, which is a rather large opening. It can lead to significant failures. And the continuous load path. We've seen many houses that are connected simply with toenails connecting the roof framing to the walls below, and that's not a very durable way to build when you have wind speeds that are approaching 70, 80, 90 miles an hour, 90 miles an hour being the design level.

Next slide:
Why do we orient things the way we do, and why do we pay attention to the details? It's because little things matter.

Next slide:
I'm going to show you here a house that we built and tested in our facility. This is a duplex. Both sides are identical to one another. The only change we made in one side of the duplex versus the other is we sealed the roof deck, which is a FORTIFIED bronze technique, using a four-inch-wide modified (inaudible) tape to cover all the horizontal and vertical seams in the deck. so that when a roof covering was lost, the water couldn't inundate the structure. The cost to do that was just under $500. Let's see at how the performance differed.

Next slide (video):
You'll see the shingles come off. The shingles are rated to withstand winds in excess of 100 miles an hour. But we only got to 60 before they started to fail. You see the water intruding here. And those gaps in the deck are designed to be there for expansion and contraction. You can see the plywood clip right there. So when the roof covering fails, and the tar paper, which is not a durable underlayment once it becomes exposed, comes off, now we get massive amounts of water in the house, precisely because we have these design gaps. Water pours in, then eventually overwhelms the ceiling, and the sheetrock collapses, damaging personal property, making the house substantially unlivable. We've overwhelmed our collection systems. This is the sealed side, a little bit of insulation -- you can see it on the floor -- is when we pulled down the attic access. The damage here was limited to the exterior on the sealed side, versus having it be the total house.

Next slide:
This gives you a perspective on how much damage was reduced just by that one technique. And remember, if we were really building this duplex to be FORTIFIED, we would have not just sealed the deck, but we would have improved the attachment and the underlayment, we would have improved the shingle attachment, the material that was used, and this damage would have gone down even further. But just that one technique resulted in a 300-percent reduction in damage. The damage that you see on the right-hand side is $17,000, but that doesn't include the disruption. That doesn't include the loss of the contents and the people being forced out of their home while it had to be rehabilitated.

Next slide:
So here's some program basics. And I mentioned before and I'll mention it again, we'll get into the real nitty-gritty of the program in the second webinar in the series in two weeks. Some key basics are the independent verification is required. We give trained, certified, FORTIFIED -- those evaluators come from knowledgeable construction professionals, either home inspectors, designers, or design professionals or contractors. They have to know what they're looking at. The cost -- the cost varies. Each evaluator sets their own fee for the evaluation, and they generally run between $300 and $400 for an evaluation. Upgrades, if they're needed, can vary. If you're building a home in south Florida, there's zero cost associated with going to FORTIFIED. If you're in Alabama and you're not in a place that has adopted FORTIFIED as part of their building code, then you may be looking at zero to 3 percent increase in cost. In some other places where they haven't kept up with high wind or hurricane-related engineering principles, you may be looking at about 5 percent increase in cost. But again, many, many homes being built today by builders that are going beyond the minimum requirements already are very, very close to meeting the standard, especially at the bronze level. Designations are valid for five years and then they have to be renewed. They get renewed after a redesignation inspection, and at that redesignation inspection, we're essentially focused on the roof. The roof cover will weather; despite what the warranty says, it won't last as long as the warranty says it's good for. So we go out and every five years we reevaluate the roof to make sure that it remains in good condition and then we can reissue the designation.

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Critical factors to success in earning a FORTIFIED designation. Documentation in the form of pictures, product information, compliance forms, and in many places, the involvement of an engineer. Now, in coastal communities, the involvement of an engineer is more common than inland. But in inland communities it's very important when we're talking about developing a continuous load path that can resist those severe straight-line winds and reduce the damage path of the tornados, we had to really design the connections, and an engineer is frequently necessary to do that.

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Alright, so we talked a little bit about what FORTIFIED is, and what the types of systems that we're looking to improve, why resilience is important, the risks that people face in their desire to do something about it.

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Let's get into the business case of building FORTIFIED Homes now. So what's the challenge? The challenge is, consumers are making purchasing decisions with incomplete information.

Jamie Lyons:
Hey, Fred? This is Jamie. Let me interrupt you real quick, if I may, and we had a number of questions come through. Just so people don't have to wait on their answer for too long, let me give you a few, and then we can jump into the business case. Does that work?

Fred Malik:
Yea, absolutely. Let's do it.

Jamie Lyons:
OK. Is seismic covered by the FORTIFIED program?

Fred Malik:
We do have guidance for seismic in one of our programs, called FORTIFIED for Safer Living. We do not have a seismic rating or seismic designation under the FORTIFIED Home program at this time.

Jamie Lyons:
OK, OK. This question came in a minute ago. If the upgrades are permanently integrated into the homes, then why does the certification expire?

Fred Malik:
It's a good question. So I mentioned, while most of the improvements are concealed by finished materials, the roof cover is not. And it is by far the most vulnerable system of the house. It's like the skin on your arms. It's out there in the weather; it deteriorates at different rates. And when it begins to deteriorate and is not capable of performing as well as it did when it was installed new, it becomes important that we identify when it needs to be replaced. I've been on many roofs as a part of this program, and it's not uncommon for me to see 30-year shingles require replacement after seven years in blistering sunshine out along the Gulf Coast. So that's why we look at it every five years, is because that roof cover depending on the cover that you use, can deteriorate rapidly.

Jamie Lyons:
OK. Couple more here. Is IBHS also looking at commercial construction?

Fred Malik:
Yes, we are. We have -- we've currently published a set of mitigation guidance called FORTIFIED for Safer Business. It's up on our website. It's all-inclusive. It's designed so that you would address every hazard that a property might face. And we ratchet up the design criteria significantly, increasing the wind speed by 20 miles an hour, requiring in some cases some higher levels of factors of safety in the design, and also requiring exposure C for all designs. That guidance is currently out there. We are in the process of developing a commercial standard that is modeled after the FORTIFIED Home process that I just described, where we look at a building from a single hazard perspective, whatever the dominant hazard is in that particular area. We're going through task force work on that now, and we hope to have that guidance available later this year.

Jamie Lyons:
OK. And sort of another scope-related question: You seem to be looking at a lot of single-family residential examples here. Where does multi-family and apartments fall within the program scope?

Fred Malik:
Multifamily and condominiums, those types of things, they are treated as commercial construction. So those projects would be covered either under our FORTIFIED for Safer Business standard or the standard being developed, called FORTIFIED Commercial Building. You can use some of these techniques on multifamily projects, but there are other elements like fire suppression and other considerations in multifamily uses that are not addressed in typical residential.

Jamie Lyons:
Is it safe to say that the FORTIFIED program that we've been looking at thus far sort of corresponds to the IRC scope?

Fred Malik:
Yea, that's a pretty fair analogy. We deal with primarily single-family detached. The standard can be used for manufactured homes, as well, under specific circumstances. And we have used the program or allowed the program to be used for townhouses, single-family attached product. But once you get into the multifamily and the high-occupancy types of residences, then it flips over to the commercial.

Jamie Lyons:
OK. And I saved this one to last. It might be a good segue into your business case discussion. It was asking about the insurance premium reduction, which might go along with the FORTIFIED certification. It's asking for some info on that. If they are tiered to the level of certification in any way.

Fred Malik:
So most of the places where FORTIFIED incentives in the form of insurance credits and discounts are available, yes, the risk is different, depending on which level of home or which level of designation you've achieved, so the discount is priced accordingly. And we'll get into that a little bit, although I don't talk specifically about the dollar values of discounts because they can vary from company to company and from state to state. So it's really not productive to get into dollar values. But they are calibrated -- the discounts are generally calibrated to the different levels of designation

Jamie Lyons:
OK. That's good. Keep the questions coming, everybody. Thank-you, and we'll do another round, but I'll turn Fred loose again here.

Fred Malik:
Alright. Good questions. Appreciate people being engaged and involved. So getting into the business case, why you should consider building FORTIFIED Homes and designing FORTIFIED Homes and why customers care. And will care. So the challenge, as I mentioned before, is that people are making buying decisions right now with incomplete information. They just don't have good information about how their home was built, especially if they're talking about purchasing an existing property. Nobody ever talks about what code was this built to, and how long ago was it built. They really care more about wear and tear versus how the home was built. They need better ways to compare alternatives. They value what they can see over what they cannot. So most of the things that we're talking about are concealed by finished materials. And in terms of curb appeal, there's not much change from one house to the next. Most of the FORTIFIED upgrades that we're talking about can be incorporated into just about any design. So it's not like you're living in a concrete bunker and somebody can say, oh, well, that's clearly a FORTIFIED house. And consumers prioritize their spending dollars typically on the things that they can see. We need to try and educate and help at least give them better information so that if they still want to make that decision, they understand what the consequences are of that decision. And then, as I mentioned before, consumers need an objective way to compare alternatives. They need a meaningful way to be able to say, I have two houses, at roughly the same price. They're roughly the same style. What's the -- is there a way to tell them apart? One's FORTIFIED, and one's not. OK, I know what that means. I know what being FORTIFIED means.

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A significant challenge that the industry has, and I pulled this directly from some of the other training that DOE does, is that consumers don't trust builders or real estate professionals, for that matter. And using or participating in a program like FORTIFIED helps to bridge that gap. It establishes you as an expert. It gives you a third-party proof source to say, look, I'm complying with these stringent standards, and you don't have to just take my word for it. A qualified and certified inspector comes out and verifies the work that I have done. And you get a certificate as a result of that. So building that trust up and building a base for good referrals is important.

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Building the trust of the customer we just talked about, that comes as an extension of the independent verification.

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It can also give you an opportunity to sell that your home is going to protect what's priceless. Building codes in general -- the focus of building codes is to protect life safety, is to give you enough time to get out of harm's way. But it really is not designed or intended for the structure necessarily to be -- to survive or to be reused in a timely way. A program like FORTIFIED does take care of that. It takes that life safety component and it ratchets it up so that we are protecting the property, not just the physical house, but also its contents and its memories. Often times, when you see people after disasters and they talk about their losses, they say, well, you know, I'll get my house rebuilt, because the insurance company will give me the money to do that, but I can't replace the memories. I can't replace the things that the insurance doesn't cover.

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Participating in FORTIFIED Home also provides a way of differentiating and obtaining recognition from a leading independent resource. You can sell value over price, or at least you could position your product as a value, not just based on price. Be an expert. Stronger value proposition over competition, including foreclosures and short sales. As a former builder who was building several hundred homes a year for a national builder, going into sales centers now and watching those sales conversations happen, we're seeing a lot more competition from low-priced alternatives like foreclosures and short sales. And FORTIFIED gives an opportunity to at least steer that conversation in a slightly different direction and take the focus off of price and to turn that conversation around and put it on durability and quality. Value for the dollars that you're spending.

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Also, using the FORTIFIED mark. We've got labels that you can apply to the house. We've got the designation certification. And as a FORTIFIED builder, if you -- or designer or other stakeholder, -- if you're participating in the production of FORTIFIED Homes, there are opportunities to use the logo in your marketing materials. By the way, we have on our website a FORTIFIED Home mark usage guidelines document that tells you how you can use the mark and when it's appropriate and when you're allowed to do so.

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We also developed a lot of branded collateral material that's available from our website. Most of the pieces that we develop are co-brandable, so we leave an area on the piece that allows whoever is distributing it to have their own information on the piece, so that people know where they got it. But in addition to the print materials that we develop, there are the compelling videos. And we'll see some more of those in just a few minutes. But our videos we put up online, and we have -- we extend opportunities to people building and designing FORTIFIED Homes to use those videos in their sales presentations. It's -- working with a national builder in the Gulf Coast and they're using the videos in their sales models, and they have it running, and it's a conversation-starter. The homeowner asks, what is that? What are you showing there? And it opens the door for that conversation to happen about how that particular builder is building all of their homes to be FORTIFIED.

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The other thing, if you're a builder, that is important is controlling the process. Whenever you have a third party that comes out and walks your property and gives a report to the property owner, there's always an opportunity that there may be a difference of opinion in how things should be done or could be done. And as a builder, you're kind of out of control of that. You have to react and respond to it when it happens, but if you are participating in the FORTIFIED program, and you are the one working with the evaluator, the FORTIFIED Home evaluator, then those reports come to you. And if something is not done correctly, you have an opportunity to address it before it becomes an issue with your property owner. We also have a number of homeowners who are, after their closing, finding out about the FORTIFIED program, going back to get an evaluation and to get their home designated. And going back to their builder saying, well, I thought you built the house this way, and now it turns out that it didn't happen that way. We provide objective feedback about the property and the way it's built, and there's an element of losing control if you aren't participating in the program from the beginning.

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And then of course, the most important thing is growing demand. Do people care about this? Well, in a slide or two I'm going to show you where people are caring about it more right now and why. But we are getting more and more interest from around the country in FORTIFIED. After every event that happens, we're now becoming the go-to expert to the national news outlets, and the Weather Channel and the like, where they talk to our folks and we talk about the importance of durability. And then we get requests for information and get applications from people who want to participate in the program. To date, there have been FORTIFIED Homes built in 16 states. And we have requests from all of the 48 contiguous United States. Different people wanting to make improvements to their homes for different reasons.

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So here's who's using FORTIFIED. I limited the map, the things that you're color to. I didn't put the 16 states on here because I don't want to confuse the issue. The four states that are shown here are states where legislation has been passed establishing credits for FORTIFIED Homes or FORTIFIED-built homes, or there's a regulatory initiative. For example, in North Carolina, it's not state law but there's a single rate-filing bureau there that files rates on behalf of admitted insurance carriers in the state. And that rating bureau mandated incentives in their 18 coastal counties for FORTIFIED Home. So in these three states, in Alabama, we have had building codes in their coastal counties have been modified to incorporate FORTIFIED requirements. And that's leading to builders and homeowners being forced to comply because the code has changed. And now all they really have to do is get an inspection to be able to take advantage of the benefits, the financial benefits. Mississippi, the legislation just passed last year, but we're already seeing progress made in that direction. And for the first time in its history, Mississippi passed a statewide building code, this past legislative session, and we see that as real progress toward creating the same kind of fruitful environment that Alabama has. In addition to the states, individual insurance companies have offered discounts in more areas. They're just proprietary, and they don't necessarily share that information except with their existing client base. So it becomes harder to track it when they turn something on. But I always know when a company like State Farm or another big company decides that they're going to offer discounts in a location. I find out after the fact, because I start getting phone calls from homeowners, builders, and commercial building owners wanting to participate. But in addition to the states and individual companies, the federal government is also using sort of -- right now, the Department of Homeland Security is piloting a program called Resilient Star. We're just about to wrap that up. It's on the Gulf Coast. It is a similar program in its goals to ENERGY STAR. it will be a federally recognized resilience program. And currently the only qualifying standard for Resilient Star are the FORTIFIED programs. FEMA has used FORTIFIED guidance to develop their wind retrofitted guide, which is the basis for awarding mitigation grants to states. Mississippi successfully applied for and was granted $20 million under this program, and they are retrofitting about a thousand houses along the Mississippi coast with that money. And by the way, in that particular location FEMA decided to split the cost of retrofits with homeowners 90/10. So the homeowner only has to pay 10 percent, and the federal government pays 90 percent of the retrofit cost. And then once the home is retrofitted, it's eligible for insurance discounts. And then finally, after Sandy, there's a task force that -- run by HUD, that developed for the president a Hurricane Sandy rebuilding strategy. It's specifically mentioned in the rebuilding strategy, recommendation No. 37, is implement FORTIFIED Home and FORTIFIED for Safer Living in the affected areas. So that just gives you a sense for the momentum that is building around the program and the different sources for that momentum.

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So I'll stop right there and see if anybody has any other questions. Jamie, if you want to take them now, and then we're going to close the presentation talking about how buildings and wind interact.

Jamie Lyons:
Sorry, Fred, was on mute. A few questions which might be a good segue. There's a little more nuts-and-bolts questions here. Let me start off with a question about any sample building plans, as to whether IBHS makes sample plans available?

Fred Malik:
We do not currently have a library of sample plans. In our guidance, we describe the performance criteria of the materials that need to be used and the way that the property should be designed. If somebody is new to the program and wants to ask questions, we do have a staff that can review plans and give feedback on a limited basis.

Jamie Lyons:
OK. Here's a specific question; let's see if we have enough detail to take a crack at it. A building code official, sounds like, requires tie-downs consisting of hurricane clips, four inches on center, tie-down straps from second-floor walls to the first-floor walls, and the first-floor walls to the sill plate, anchored to the foundation. Is this connection with just a tie-down strap to sill enough?

Fred Malik:
Yea, unfortunately we don't have enough information to make that determination. And when we get into the building and wind interactions, part of the presentation, you get a sense for all of the factors that have to be considered when you're designing a load path to determine whether it's adequate or not. So unfortunately I cannot give you a yes or no answer to that.

Jamie Lyons:
Here's a more general one which might be a good sort of jumping-off point for your next and last segment here. Have you looked at alternative construction techniques, such as unvented attic assemblies, and how they may play into the FORTIFIED certification?

Fred Malik:
We have. We actually have a roof farm up at our lab, and we have a couple of member companies of ours that are in different portions of the country that are building roof farms for us, so that we're undertaking a 20-year research project to look at how roofs weather under a variety of circumstances. We do look at sealed attics, and sealed attics can be very effective for resisting water intrusion by eliminating attic ventilation. However, as I'm sure most of the folks on the call know, there are consequences to making that decision that don't really have anything to do with durability. And you need to make sure that if you're going to do that, that you're addressing HVAC concerns and combustible air concerns, moisture control concerns from inside the house, when you close off that space. But we have looked at that. We've also looked at things like advanced framing, different types of construction, insulated concrete forms, and those types of things. We see just about everything that comes down the pike. And we are material and system agnostic. We don't endorse one over the other. We just say that there are right ways and wrong ways to build anything, with any type of material, and we want to get you focusing on the right ways to use whatever material you're using, whether it's framing or concrete or something similar.

Jamie Lyons:
OK. Let's keep it moving. I'll turn it back over to you, and then with whatever time we have remaining at the end, we can catch up on the final questions.

Fred Malik:
OK, great. So we have about 25 minutes. We should be just fine on time. So we'll go through this portion relatively quickly. The idea here is to give you some basic information, not to really get into the nuts and bolts of all the engineering. We do that in our evaluator training classes and some of the other training that we do. Just to give folks on the call some perspective on buildings and the things that need to be accounted for, that's what this section is intended to do.

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So the key difference between these two houses -- and as you can tell, the one on the left is coming apart, and the one on the right is FORTIFIED -- the key difference between those is really knowing what to do and when. There is some cost associated with the difference in performance, but if you know what you're supposed to do, and when you're supposed to do it, you can minimize how much it impacts your bottom line.

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So when we design for high winds, whether it's coastal winds or inland winds, basically four things need to be considered. The wind speed, and that's based off of a reference document called ASCE, American Society of Civil Engineers, Document 7. Exposure category, which is the area that is around the site. The height of the building, slope of the roof. And then, are there any other significant or prominent terrain features that are close to the building.

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So for those of you who may not have seen it before, this is what an ASCE-7 map looks like. This is from the reference document. And you'll notice that along the coast, there are different colored contour lines, and each contour line is associated with a number that corresponds to design wind speed for that location. And depending on where you are, on which side of the line you're on, that tells you what your design wind speed should be for that property. It's only one part of the analysis that has to happen. And the other thing that I want to point out is that once you get far enough inland, and you hit this 90 mile-an-hour contour right here, then the rest of the country essentially is designed to a single wind speed. That's 90 miles an hour. Some special wind zones, which is what these shaded areas are, and then up here in the Northwest, there's an 85 mile-an-hour wind zone. But this is what the wind speed maps look like. And generally speaking, along the coast, a lot more emphasis and time is put into understanding where those contours should be placed than it is inland. And once you get to 90 miles an hour and below, most places don't require you to involve an engineer in the design of the property, and as we've seen, that can lead to some pretty significant vulnerabilities. But this is what the wind speed map looks like, and it's the first step in designing a building.

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It's critical to understand, as we've mentioned a number of times today, that the building acts as a system. All of the systems or all of the subsystems have to function properly for the home to really be durable and resilient. And if you're not focusing on the systems, and rather you're focusing on individual components, you're not likely to get the desired result.

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So when we talk about designing for wind, it's really the pressures and the loads that those pressures create that we're trying to design for. Wind speed, exposure category of height, and slope, all factor into how we define what those pressures and those loads look like, but oftentimes people are misled, because they hear wind speed reported in the media, and they think, well that's the end-all and be-all criteria. It's really not. It's the pressures. And we're going to talk about why it's important to understand how the pressures can be different at the same wind speed on different parts of the building or different buildings located in different places.

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So when the wind is attacking a building, it's actually trying to do a number of things all at the same time. It's trying to push the building off its foundation, it's trying to pull it apart, it's trying to spin it around, and it's also trying to lift it up on it, so it's not just pushing in one direction. It actually pushes and pulls in multiple directions at the same time. And as the wind moves around the building, where the wind is moving in multiple directions at the same time, those are the most vulnerable places on the building.

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So this gives you an idea of what that looks like. If you look at the roof, the yellow area is what we call zone 1. That's where the lowest pressure is. (inaudible) are zone 2, and that's along the eaves and up the rakes here on the building edges. And where zone 2s overlap, that's the red squares. That's called zone 3, and that's where the highest pressures are. And essentially what's happening is, when the wind is moving around the building, in those corners, it's trying to do -- it's exerting its maximum force by both pushing and pulling at the same time. It's very important for people to understand that. It's why we have different nailing patterns in the corners, and at the eaves, and why roof attachment is so important. If you lose one panel out of the roof, the entire building is vulnerable to failure. The same principle and concept for the walls. The general middle of the wall, three feet or more from the corner is zone 4, and then at the corners, within three feet of an outside corner, is what we call zone 5. And that's where the highest pressures occur on the wall. And what's why it's never really a good idea to put windows or doors that close to a corner. The pressures are just too significant, and if they're not properly accounted for, those windows or doors can fail just because of the pressure that's being exerted on the building at that point.

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This slide just gives you some comparison of how high those pressures can be from place to place. So just look down the negative pressure column there. Remember the yellow was zone 1. It's a relatively low, negative pressure. But when you get to the corner, you get to those zone 3 areas, where the zone 2s are overlapping, the pressure at the same wind speed goes from 27 to 71. Similar changes occur in pressure from roof to wall on the positive pressure side.

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And then one of the more significant areas of vulnerability to wind, in the way design and the way a building design can dictate how durable a structure is, is the concept of pressurization. Today we pretty much design everything to be fully enclosed, which means we're keeping the wind and its related pressures on the outside of the building. So as the wind pushes against it and moves around, in one direction it's pushing but as it moves around and starts to pull with negative pressure, it's only exerting that pressure on one side of the wall at a time. But when you have an opening that gets penetrated, an opening as small as nine square feet can be enough to pressurize the inside of a building. And then really what it becomes like is the wind is blowing up the house like a balloon. It's exerting pressure from both sides of the wall, pushing and pulling at the same time, and it's a rigid structure, so it can't expand. to hold that pressure in. It has to go somewhere. And what ends up happening is the buildings fail. We get roof failures like we've already seen; we get wall failures.

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Now here's some examples of what from our facility. See the front door opens, and within seconds the house pressurizes and collapses. And also I want to just remind you that the wind speeds here are not prolonged at a high number. It's 96 mile-an-hour gusts that have caused this failure. Just to show the difference that's possible in performance, but paying attention to these details, if you'll notice in the still shot that's on your screen now, on the right-hand side here, on the FORTIFIED house, that door has been nailed open. So it's experiencing the exact same forces on the same floor plan as the house that's collapsing, but it's standing tall. We destroyed five of these homes and used the same FORTIFIED house for all five demonstrations and we finally decided we wanted to figure out what we would need to do to destroy that FORTIFIED Home under those same conditions. We finally had to start cutting pieces of the building away to get it to fail. So the difference in cost, just so you know, between these two buildings, -- and there's more than just the load path; we upgraded the shingles, the siding, the decking, the way the decking was attached -- difference in cost between these two houses is $3,000. Now, if I'm in a sales situation, I'm pretty sure I can tell people there's $3,000 worth of the value in this house versus the one that's falling down beside me.

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Alright, so that's really kind of a just a primer on buildings and wind and how they interact. Obvious question might be, how can you get involved.

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You have an opportunity to be a leader in your field and in your community to help bring clarity and focus to resilience and make your clients aware.

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Here are some things that you can do to become connected to the program. You can make a commitment to build FORTIFIED. Download the standards, the guides and fact sheets that we have online for free at our website at disastersafety.org. As Lindsay mentioned, you're going to get copies of this presentation, so you'll have access to these links when you receive the presentation.

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There's also opportunities to get trained. Any qualified contractor, professional, design professional or home inspector can attend our evaluator training and either be certified or come as an attendee and just get the knowledge. On our website at FORTIFIED, disastersafety.org/fortified, all of the training information is there, dates of the training. There's a handbook that tells you what the qualifications are, the price and all that kind of good stuff. If you are certified, you're certified for three years. And then we're in the process now of developing contractor training. We have a program that's going to be called FORTIFIED Wise Contractors. And that's going to be coming online this fall, where contractors and companies can send representatives and can get a basic introduction to FORTIFIED and trained as FORTIFIED and then be able to promote themselves as FORTIFIED Wise Contractors.

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So the last few slides I have here are just links and resources. And I think now's a good time to launch those last two polls before we lose people. We do have a couple of other questions to ask you. One is, what are the challenges you see in adopting FORTIFIED in your business, and then we've got another question that's going to give us a little bit more information about what we can do to make it more -- to make it easier for you to make the decision to build FORTIFIED. So go ahead, Lindsay.

Lindsay Parker:
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OK, I'll launch the first poll, which is, what do you see as the biggest challenge in deciding to build or retrofit FORTIFIED Homes? The first option is cost. Maybe it's lack of consumer awareness of the program. Difficulty showing the value to homeowners. Difficulty demonstrating value to my company. Or none; I'm ready; let's go. I'll give some people some time to put in their vote.

Jamie Lyons:
In just a little of the down time here, we have a question come in recently; I think you touched on it earlier, but maybe could review. How FORTIFIED is applied to existing homes. I just thought of that because that's sort of built into the question.

Fred Malik:
Sure. So the standards are the same whether you're building a new home or retrofitting an existing house. You still have to improve the roof, you still have to take care of the openings if you want to go to silver in the tech structures, and if you want to go to gold, you've got to have a load path. In an existing home, though, your options are generally going to be more constrained than what's available to you when you're building a new home from the ground up. So the process works a little bit differently in that the evaluation comes first, as opposed to at the end of the construction cycle. So the evaluation happens. The evaluator goes out and identifies how the home is built, reports that back to us, and then we generate a report that says, here is where your home is vulnerable. Here's what you need to do about it. Then the homeowner works with their evaluator and their contractors to make those changes that they want to make. Just to give an example: Sealing the roof deck. if you're replacing the roof cover, whether you're re-roofing or putting a new roof on, you could apply tape to the top side of the roof, you can use a fully adhered membrane, peel and stick. Or if you can properly install a synthetic underlayment deck, that can also be used to seal a deck. But if you're in an existing house where the roof covering is in good shape and doesn't need to be replaced, sealing the deck options are limited to installing a closed-cell foam adhesive to the underside of the deck from within the attic. And that can be done. Most attics where there's enough headroom and enough space to move around, that foam can be installed and the roof does not have to be -- the roof cover does not have to be replaced. So our guidance that's available on disastersafety.org -- we have fact sheets that are tailored to both existing and new construction, and we have technical requirement summaries that are similarly tailored so that it's easier to understand the differences between the two approaches.

Lindsay Parker:
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The poll results came in from the last one. It looks like 15 percent of attendees who responded think the biggest challenge is lack of consumer awareness for the program.

Fred Malik:
OK. Good to know. We're working on it.

Lindsay Parker:
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And next, let's see, here's the next question, which is, what would you identify as the most compelling reason to build or retrofit FORTIFIED Homes? ... OK, I'm going to go ahead and close the poll now.

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So the results are, looks like 63 percent say that it provides an additional value for my customer.

Fred Malik:
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Alright. Well, good. I'm glad that people can see some value in what we're talking about, and I know that we're getting close on time, so I just want to say thank-you again to Department of Energy, Jamie and Lindsay, for asking us to participate in this series. I look forward to seeing folks in two weeks where we can get into the specific retrofits or specific upgrade techniques that are available to you through FORTIFIED Home. And then Jamie, if there's any other questions, I'm happy to take them. Otherwise, I'll leave it to you to close it out.

Jamie Lyons:
OK, yea, let's just catch one or two more. Just to remind everybody, the training, the part 2 training that Fred mentioned is scheduled for June 25. So keep an eye out for an email notification on that. Fred, if I'm understanding you, we're going to get a little more into sort of the how-tos, the nuts and bolts of some of these fortification measures in that session, right?

Fred Malik:
That's right. We're going to walk through each level of designation and each system, and we're going to talk about what's vulnerable about it and what you can do about it.

Jamie Lyons:
OK. I guess I will just offer a personal question / observation on the second to last poll you did, citing the sort of the lack of consumer awareness of the brand. I think that's a common challenge for disaster resistance, which goes above and beyond code, as well as energy efficiency and building performance that goes above and beyond code. And we can all strive for a brand like a Coca-Cola where everybody knows it, but that's hundreds of millions of dollars a year to raise that brand awareness and few programs ever get to that. Anywhere near that kind of place. I think FORTIFIED, probably like the DOE Zero Energy program, is looking to arm and equip its sales force, its builders and its verifiers and other aligned groups, to let them be able to communicate the message with materials and strategy. Any comment on that, Fred?

Fred Malik:
Well, you're absolutely right. As a nonprofit, we make no money from this program. We don't charge a fee other than a very minimal processing fee when something is submitted to us and we've got to invest in the engineer time to review it. So we're not making money on this program. But evaluators and contractors, we want to empower them to have a financial reason to execute the program. And by default, that makes contractors, designers, and inspectors our most effective sales force. And so much of what I spend my time doing is looking at how we can help market the program in your local area. Whether that's coming along on builder visits with you, and sitting down with client visits and discussing the benefits of building FORTIFIED and why they should do it. Or providing collateral materials, training and support. All of those things are emphasized in our office so that we can make those stakeholders effective sales people. And essentially, the reason we drive people to our website when they want to participate in the program is so we can be a lead generator for folks that are looking to participate in the program. So we have an online directory we're investing and improving right now to make it even more dynamic. And frankly, Jamie, you probably know this as well as I do. Folks want to hear from their local experts. I can parachute in to a town after a disaster happens, or if somebody has a particular appetite for building more resilient homes, I could go there and spend a day, but at the end of that day, I'm gone and I'm on to the next place. And really, what is required for a program like this to take off is local champions that are there, talking about it every day. And so we want to make that something that you are interested in doing because there's a financial reason to do it. So, anyhow. Please let us know if we can help you.

Jamie Lyons:
Great. OK, I just thought a good point to sign off here, so again, mark June 25 on your calendars, please, and on behalf of Fred Malik and IBHS, and U.S. Department of Energy, thank-you very much for joining us today. Enjoy the rest of your day.