We are committed to a number of bilateral efforts in which our nations are already engaged, including:
- The U.S.-China Energy Policy Dialogue (EPD) - United States-China Energy Policy Dialogue was established between DOE and the National Development and Reform Commission in May 2004, to facilitate policy-level bilateral exchanges of views on energy security, economic issues as well as energy technology options.
- The U.S.-China Oil and Gas Industry Forum - This forum was launched in 1998, and serves to facilitate opportunities for government and industry leaders from both countries to have frank discussions about our respective needs in the oil and gas sector. The Departments of Energy and Commerce are co-hosts of the Forum on the U.S. side, and the National Development and Reform Commission is the Chinese host. Industry representatives play a very active role in formulating meeting agenda and giving presentations.
- The U.S.-China Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology (PUNT) Agreement - Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology, signed in 1998, between DOE and China's NDRC, to reaffirm the 1985 Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (PUNE). Cooperative activities have been implemented by China Atomic Energy Authority. The cooperation covers nuclear technology and export control, nuclear emergency management and safety, and high level waste management. This effort facilitated the U.S.- Chinese Memorandum of Understanding signed in December 2006 for export of AP1000 Westinghouse civil nuclear energy technology to China.
We are engaged in several multi-national forums:
- The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC) - APEC is a forum that facilitates economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. APEC is the only intergovernmental grouping in the world operating on the basis of non-binding commitments, open dialogue and equal respect for the views of all participants.
- The Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP) - Asia-Pacific Partnership for Clean Development and Climate, comprised of Australia, China, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the United States, addresses action on national pollution reduction, energy security and climate change concerns. Task forces under the APP have met to develop action plans for these sectors. The Partners endorsed plans containing nearly 100 individual projects and activities in Jeju, Korea, on October 13, 2006.
- The International Energy Forum's Joint Oil Data Initiative (JODI) - JODI is an effort by 96 countries to create a more transparent world oil market by providing timely, comprehensive oil data. The nations report monthly to the International Energy Forum Secretariat (IEFS) through the 6 international organizations (APEC, EU, IEA, OPEC, OLADE, and the UN) that joined to create JODI in 2001. The IEFS took over coordination of JODI in 2005, when the internet-based JODI World Database was launched.
We will carry forward and build on multi-lateral projects such as:
- Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) - CSLF is focused on the development of improved cost-effective technologies for the separation and capture of carbon dioxide for its transport and long-term storage. The purpose of the CSLF is to make these technologies broadly available internationally, and to identify and address wider issues relating to carbon capture and storage. CSLF, which now includes 20 countries including China, and the European Commission, has approved 17 capture and storage projects as well as a Technology Roadmap to provide future directions for international cooperation.
- International Partnership for a Hydrogen Economy - Established on November 20, 2003, seventeen countries and the European Union are partnering to efficiently coordinate multinational research, development and demonstration programs to advance the transition to a global hydrogen economy. The IPHE organizes and coordinates multinational research, development and deployment programs that advance the transition to a global hydrogen economy.
- International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) - ITER is a joint international research and development project that aims to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of fusion power. The partners in the project - the ITER Parties - are the European Union (represented by EURATOM), Japan, China, India, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the USA. ITER will be constructed at Cadarache, France and is expected to be completed in 2015. DOE laboratories will subcontract with industry to build the components of ITER for which the U.S. is responsible. The total value of the U.S. contribution is $1.122 billion.
We are partners in a number of bilateral science and technology agreements and protocols to advance research and development in high energy physics, nuclear fusion, energy efficiency and nuclear security technology, including:
- High Energy Physics Implementing Accord - This bilateral accord between DOE and China's Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and the Chinese Academy of Science was initially signed in 1979 and is focused on advancing theoretical and experimental research, accelerator design, and related technology - specifically on recent upgrades to the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) and the Beijing Electron Spectrometer (BES)
- Protocol on Nuclear Physics and Controlled Magnetic Fusion - This protocol focuses on plasma physics, fusion technology, advanced design studies, and materials research. Originally signed in 1979 and renewed in April 2006 by DOE and China's MOST, this protocol builds on cooperation through the IEA fusion research program and International Thermal-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and includes collaborative research on China's superconducting tokamak, HT-7U.
- Fossil Energy Protocol - This protocol was signed in 2000 and has led to China's participation in the Government Steering Committee of the FutureGen Initiative. The protocol was renewed in April 2005 and has led to various workshops and cooperation in research and development in coal liquefaction, enhanced oil recovery, and measurements of methane emission from agriculture.
- Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Protocol - This protocol was renewed by Secretary Bodman and Minister Xu in December 2006 and is focused on cooperation in industrial energy efficiency; energy efficient building technologies; and joint research on biofuels. Past bilateral energy cooperation has resulted in the demonstration of wind and solar energy systems, training and certification workshops for wind energy technologies, resource assessment training and a renewable energy business workshop.
- Protocol on the Exchange of Energy Information - This protocol signed in January 2000 has led to collaborative visits on information exchange and technical assistance related to energy information, analysis, and modeling.
- Cooperation on the Beijing 2008 Green Olympics - DOE signed a protocol in January 2004 with China's Ministry of Science and Technology, and Beijing Municipal People's Government (BMPC) to promote use of clean energy technologies in use in the U.S. to drastically improve Beijing's environmental standard by 2008 and to present the event as a magnificent "high-tech" sports meet. Continued cooperation includes the development of a renewable hydrogen production and dispensing facility that will provide hydrogen for a fleet of five hydrogen natural gas buses which will be cost-shared by DOE, U.S. industry and the Chinese government.
We plan for future cooperation in a number of areas, including:
- FutureGen Government Steering Committee - The Government Steering Committee (GSC) provides guidance and input to the Department of Energy with respect to the design and requirements of the research and testing program for FutureGen. The GSC will review, advise, and influence the requirements and scope of research that the FutureGen Initiative will address.
- Generation-IV Nuclear Reactor Agreement - The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) was established in January 2000 to investigate innovative nuclear energy system concepts for meeting future energy challenges. The forum serves to coordinate international research and development on promising new nuclear energy systems for meeting future energy challenges. GIF members include Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Euratom, France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and United States, with the OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency as permanent observers. In July 2006, the GIF voted unanimously to extend an offer of membership to China and Russia, with formal entry expected in November of 2006.
Megan Barnett, (202) 586-4940